The JB model consists of six constructs (leader behavioral forms) or 41 variables, which explain the influence of leader behavior on sickness absence. The constructs in this model are: Authenticity (A), Commitment to Cooperation and Progress (development) (CCP), Morality and Strength (MS), together representing the dimension of the second-order construct, which we named “Reality and Reason” (RR). The other three constructs in the model are: Employee Personality Respect (EPR), Internal Honesty (IH), and Employee Achievement Recognition (EAR). The JB model shows, that the “Reality and Reason” (RR) construct is the only construct included, which has a direct impact on sickness absence. Other constructs, such as EPR, IH or EAR, have an indirect effect on sickness absence, dependent on the perception of the leader as real and reasonable.

JB model graph

With the “Reality and Reason” construct (RR), we define all those characteristics and behavioral forms of leaders that mark their originality and “self-reliance”. The fundamental aspects being “reality” and “reasonableness”.


Reality in the JB model means that someone is “natural, original,” – as he or she is, and as such is accepted and represented in society. It arises from the individual's fundamental, natural, inner “essence” and true self. True reality does not come from outside, but from the inside. Those who are “true” do not pretend. Leaders who are “true” are identified by their “uniqueness”, authenticity, sincerity, humility, credibility, principality, optimism, courage, emotional stability, compassion, etc. Such leaders have the courage to face their own inner self, their own truth. They are not blind and they do not “push it away” in the sense that they do not face it. On the contrary, they recognize their reality and face it or accept it. They are humble in the sense that they are capable of accepting what is real, may it be good or bad. They are not without errors and in no way ideal. They are ideal in their “real inner self.” It is important that they also appear as such in front of others (e.g. before employees), because only then are they recognized by their employees as “natural” and authentic, and not “artificial”.

True leaders are enthusiastic and relaxed when looking at themselves, as they accept the way they are, and they allow (have the courage) to be as they are – with errors, weaknesses, goodness, etc. They do not play the role of the “victim.” True leaders are aware of who they are and present themselves as such. They also allow others to be real because they can really perceive their true and real self only through interaction with others.

They have their own value system (they recognize and show their values ​​and are not “superficial”) and are credible. This means that they confirm their beliefs and arguments in practice with their actions and examples. Words are by no means enough. Their actions are also important because they are aware of the importance of their role as a “teacher” and role model, as well as the value ​​of acting in accordance with their values, arguments, attitudes. They also build their credibility on the fact that they do not at all endeavor to please the majority or do everything what others expect. They work in such a way that the words they pronounce are in accordance with their thoughts, and the latter in harmony with their actions. They say the most by being who they really are (despite all the words), and thus address the employees. In addition, they remain loyal to themselves, even when others want them to be different.

Employees feel the clarity of communication, confidence, and a sense of security because they are aware of the importance of trust in today's world and, therefore, they do everything that they promise to do. They are fair to employees as well as to others. However, they are aware of the fact that fairness to others begins by being first and foremost fair to oneself. To respect and value oneself. They recognize their own needs and desires, and realize them. The reality of leaders is closely linked to the fact that one may feel their sincerity and authenticity, which stems from the “true, real self". Sincerity and authenticity can be felt in the right form only if the leaders are truly who they say they are.

Real leaders work for the common good and for the well-being of their employees and organization. They are faithful and committed to their vision. They are open to change because they are aware that the only thing that does not change is exactly the fact that everything changes. They are committed to their vision, with which they also want to enthuse employees. The real leaders are among their employees (in the center, among them), because they want to feel the actions, the relationships and everything that shapes the events in the working environment. They do not retreat from the center of activity among employees. Rather vice versa – such leaders have the courage, passion, and will to be among the employees. In fact, they are also committed to serving and improving their employees, as they strive to get to know employees and encourage progress (development), as well as cooperation.


The “Reality and Reason” construct, besides reality also forms “reasonableness,” which we understand in the way that the leaders can assess or judge what is useful, appropriate and what is not. It is therefore a “common sense” of judgment and foresight. Reality is judged as it is in reality (without embellishment), which is the basis for predicting (to see what may happen in the future) and reacting to events. For the latter, a sense of reality, people and a set of values are needed, which also help leaders in decision-making. Reasonability is important primarily because it helps the leaders to make the right decisions and to know how to judge their decisions appropriately. Reasonable leaders see things clearly even before decisions are made, as they obtain in advance all the information needed to make decisions (e.g. different opinions, etc.). Reasonable leaders act prudently (not in a hurry) and form their decisions based on the essential – this means that they act not only with reason, but also from their inner self (heart). They know it is sensible to find a suitable moment for each move. Reasonableness is also connected with logic and the ability to put leaders in the position of employees and to foresee their behavior or the course of events.